Tibetan opera has a long history and a rigorous performance program, which plays an irreplaceable role in the spiritual life of the Tibetan people. It not only emphasizes melody and artistic conception, but also USES a lot of proverbs, proverbs and idioms, and even intersperses fables in the plots, retaining the essence of ancient Tibetan literature and language.
At the end of the 8th century, the sanye temple was built and opened. According to legend, in the 14th century, tang dongjeb, a monk of the kagyu sect, formed a song and dance performance group to raise funds for the construction of Bridges. Tang dongjie cloth is also considered the father of Tibetan opera, Tibetan opera artists worship.
In the 17th century, the fifth dalai lama advocated that Tibetan opera be separated from divinity and professional troupes appeared. Later, various schools of Tibetan opera formed, further mature and developed. However, due to the low social status of artists and various conditions, the development of Tibetan opera was not satisfactory. It was not until 1950 that Tibetan opera gained a new life and became prosperous.
Generally speaking, Tibetan opera is mainly performed in the square. There are simple makeup and masks in the performances to distinguish the good and evil of the characters from the masks (similar to the masks in Peking Opera). Between ACTS someone specially USES “allegro” to explain the plot to the audience. When actors go on the stage, there are percussion instruments accompaniment, actors dance with the rhythm of more than 20 kinds of singing, can be changed according to the plot of singing, to express the feelings of the characters, depict the inner world.
The performance is divided into three parts: “ton”, “xiong” and “zhaxi”. The first part “ton” for the opening and prologue. The first stage is usually composed of “umba” (hunter) seven, “ram” (fairy) seven, and “kalu” (prince) two. It is said that this character model comes from the character specification of prince of northam, which is one of the eight Tibetan operas.
The opening Tibetan opera to dance, “wen ba” wearing a mask, holding the collective appearance of colored arrows, from the first wen ba (generally play the master) said “male harmonic” (lianzhu yong white), a lead and sing a song, sing a cry “la les”, and then collective dance. Chant, sing and dance into a short piece. This repeated several times before the end of the paragraph. This part is very danceable. The drums beat together and the atmosphere was warm.
The second part is “xiong”, which means the main body, namely zhengxi, which is the main part of Tibetan opera. They usually start with “xiong xie”, introducing the story and the location and environment. Then, the performance contents are expanded. The characters in the play sing solo and chorus, and at the end, the collective accompaniment is similar to that in sichuan opera.
A lot of plot rely on “male harmonic” after the introduction, and then according to different scene plot application “sing”, “dance”, “rhyme” (lianzhu yong white), “white” (ordinary road white), “technology” (dance skill combination), “table” (life action performance) a set of procedures respectively perform a variety of story content. In the typical environment, such as festivals, temple fairs, weddings and other scenes, various folk dances, religious dances, birdlike and animal dances are inserted to foil. Want to perform a few days commonly, the shortest also wants a few hours, length by play division master indirectly.
The third part “zhaxi” is the end, meaning auspicious. Gongs and drums on the court, all the actors singing and dancing, ritualistic like the audience ritual, to auspicious congratulations. The audience came on stage to toast the actors, offering hada, gifts of property, congratulations on the success of the performance.
In addition to the accidents that have been lost, there are more than 10 traditional Tibetan operas. Among them, the plays that are often performed are princess wencheng, tansa wenbo, prince of northam, chigmei rolling, zhuvasamu, sujnima, dun yue dun zhu, bai ma wenbo and other eight plays, which have been named as eight Tibetan operas. These scripts are based on folk stories, historical legends, buddhist classics and real life, from which it is not difficult to find a strong sense of myth and religion, and reflect the complex and beautiful feelings of the world.
Princess wencheng, a historical drama celebrating national unity, is based on historical records and folklore. In 640-641, songtsan gambo sent lu dongzan, a minister, to chang ‘an to propose to emperor taizong, passing the test of the king’s mechanism and marrying princess wencheng.
In order to make the princess feel at ease and act thoughtfully, the king of tang warned the princess: “although Tibet is a world of ice and snow, the snow mountains are like natural pagodas. When the strange jinhua opens, like a bright world. The territory of four rivers run amok, lush forests, cattle and sheep all over the mountains. In addition, the king of Tibet was kind by nature. He gave up the ten evils and practiced ten good deeds. Here are a few words from your father to keep in mind: be fair, speak peaceably, treat others equally, be kind and loving to the people, and show respect to the king of Tibet. This fully reflects the respect and love of the tang king for the tibetans.
Love is the most prominent theme reflected in the eight Tibetan operas. Prince northam depicts prince northam falling in love with a fairy named epimram who is caught by fishermen. Northanger triumphal, catch up with the heaven, the wisdom of heaven to frustrate the obstruction, husband and wife reunion. Although the story is based on buddhist scriptures, it is also a realistic love story.
Generations of Tibetan people have been singing their reverence and praise for king gesar, which has become a world-renowned heroic epic “biography of king gesar”. The method of gesar Tibetan opera is located in zoqin temple in qinghai province. It is gradually spread to the branch temples of zoqin temple, and then gradually spread to all parts of Tibetan areas, which is deeply loved by the Tibetan people.
After the democratic reform of Tibet in 1959, Tibetan opera has made new progress. To organize and reform the eight traditional Tibetan operas; The new stories in real life and celebrities in history will be the subject of innovative plays, so as to form a good situation where the old and new Tibet fly side by side.
The eight famous Tibetan operas have been adapted to reduce the number of days they were supposed to perform to about three hours. At the same time, combined with modern makeup performance, stage art, national orchestra musical instrument and traditional percussion instrument accompaniment, the square play, which used to be accompanied only by drums and drums, has become a modern stage play art with strong national characteristics, which can be performed in the theater or in the square.
After the public performance, it was widely recognized by the public, indicating that the reform of Tibetan opera was successful. At the same time, the creation of new plays has also achieved gratifying results, showing the strong vitality of the ancient Tibetan opera.
The Tibetan name for Tibetan opera is ajilam, which means fairy sister. It is said that Tibetan opera was first performed by seven sisters, and the content of the play is mostly fairy tales in buddhist scriptures, hence the name.
Tibetan opera originated from the 8th century Tibetan religious art. In the 17th century, it was separated from the religious ceremony in the temple, and gradually formed a life-style performance with singing as the main activity, and the combination of basic procedures such as singing, chanting, dancing, table, white and skill.
Tibetan opera singing sonorous and powerful, basically because of the people to determine the song, each sentence singing voice has a voice to help.
On May 20, 2006, Tibetan opera was included in the first batch of national intangible cultural heritage list approved by the state council.