Tianshan mountains

It was never a mountain

What is called

“(cen shen” tianshan snow song send xiao zhi back to Beijing “)

“Tianshan snow clouds often do not open

Qifeng wanling snow cui wei”

It stretches across the western regions with thousands of peaks and mountains

The thing is about 2500 kilometers

Ermeishan mountain majestic

It’s one of the few super mountains in the world

 

Tianshan mountains

It was never a mountain range

Tianshan in the north, tianshan in the middle and tianshan in the south

The three mountains divide north and south

It forms a large group of mountains

Mountains are huge

In the middle of the xinjiang the Great Wall

Can be called western region axis

However,

Mountain or

Mountains, mountains

In the minds of Chinese people

Tianshan is not even a mountain

What is called

(li bai, guan shanyue)

“The bright moon rises from the tianshan mountain, between the boundless clouds”

It is named after heaven

With the sun and the moon

Huaxia myth, wulin fantasy

The tianshan mountain is sacred

It has transcended nature

Become the sacred mountain of Chinese people’s mind

Tianshan mountains

Why is it so important?

For eons

Water vapor converges here, the ecology flourishes and civilizations merge

It’s like a huge corridor

It connects things. It connects everything

 

01

Mountains in the corridor

In the chain of three big mountains that make up the tianshan mountains

North tianshan, middle tianshan and south tianshan

South of you tianshan mountain is the most towering

The main peak, tormur, is 7443 meters above sea level

It is also the highest point of the tianshan mountains

The second peak in the distance

Khan tengri

It is also 6,995 meters above sea level

Two peaks and make

Sit south tianshan central

From here the mountain drops all the way east

To the easternmost kuruktag mountain

Only 1000-2000 meters above sea level

The difference in altitude is less than 300 metres

It’s like a hilly area

The north tianshan mountain is divided into two sections

In the western part of the mountain, there is a race of mountains and mountains on the mountain

East section of the main peak bogda peak

At an altitude of 5445 meters

Since ancient times it has been regarded as a sacred mountain

By the surrounding ethnic worship

In the north and south, tianshan mountain is tall and straight

By contrast

Zhong tian shan is not so lofty

The average altitude here is only 3,000 meters

The mountain is gentle and round at the top

South, north and middle mountains are arranged in order

Constitute the main body of tianshan mountain

And in the crevices of the mountains

There are mountain basins, large and small

Some are more than 2,000 meters above sea level

Far beyond the summit of mount tai

Others are extremely low

Aiding lake in turpan – hami basin

Even at a “negative altitude” of -154.43 m

The lowest point in mainland China

Basins interlaced with mountains

Constitute the tianshan intricate basin mountain system

Make it an average width of 300 km from north to south

At this point

A large east-west corridor has been completed

Now it’s the turn of the main characters

 

02

The water vapor corridor

Tianshan deep inland, far from the sea

The Pacific Ocean is beyond the reach of water vapor

What is called

(from liangzhou ci by wang zhihuan of tang dynasty)

“Why does the qiang flute complain about the willows, the spring breeze does not measure the jade gate”

The mountain on the east side

Turpan basin is dry and hot

As the earth burns with fire

And in the south

The Tibetan plateau ACTS as a barrier

Blocking the warm, moist air coming up from the Indian Ocean

So in the tarim basin

It has given birth to the largest desert in our country

Taklamakan desert

It’s dry all year round.

Annual precipitation shall not exceed 100 mm

The minimum recorded was only about 5 mm

In this regard

Tianshan is located at the extreme of drought

It’s basically out of water

This is not the case

Tianshan mountains are located in the middle latitude

The west wind prevails all the year round

Air flows through the plains of central Asia

Near the tianshan mountains

There is still a lot of water vapor

A corridor of moisture flows from west to east

The arrival of water completely changed the environment here

The tianshan mountains cover only 16 percent of xinjiang

Annual precipitation is close to half of xinjiang

Abundant rainfall converged into streams

It’s on a nearly vertical valley wall

Leaving behind dense gullies

Or streaks in the earth

The “texture” of teeth and claws

Under the long-term erosion of running water

The valley gradually widened and deepened

The result is a spectacular canyon landscape

The famous anji grand canyon

Like a crack in the earth

Near oetak danxia

The red ground is cut

A sea of blood

Out of the mountains

On the piedmont plain

Forming huge alluvial fans

And on the top of the mountain

The moisture condenses and snow falls

In winter, tianshan can receive up to 10 billion cubic meters of snow

A snowy mountain and sea lay in the distance

The snow compacted steadily

A lot of glaciers

Only mountains in China

There are 7,934 glaciers of all sizes

In particular, the largest number is in the area of tomul-khan tengger

It can be called the base camp of tianshan glacier

The glaciation in the eastern part of tianshan mountain is weak

But around the bogda

Each glacier is stunning

Glaciers act as solid reservoirs

It nurtures more than 370 rivers in xinjiang

The ili river basin in the west

Numerous tributaries, river network densely

Is the wettest area in xinjiang

And the kaidu river in the middle

Winding through the mountain basin

It went round and round

Finally into the bosten lake

Tianshan formed the largest fresh water lake

Tianshan is the most famous plateau lake

There is no better lake than selimu, which is 2,071.9 meters above sea level

The stream converges here from the surrounding high mountains

It’s still rising

The famous tianchi lake

Dotted the north slope of mount bogda

The glaciers of 10,000 years ago retreated toward the mountain tops

Left this pearl

This is despite being in one of the driest parts of China

Tianshan mountain has set up a water corridor here

And where there is water

There is life

03

Life corridor

Mountains and rivers set the stage here

Life is the star on the stage

Vegetation comes first

They come from the north and south sides of the piedmont plain

Began to “siege” tianshan

The starting point below 1000 m is desert

There are low shrubs growing

But across desert rivers

But it worked wonders here

Tianshan south foot of the taklamakan desert hinterland

Where the tarim river flows slowly

Is more than 40 million mu of huatai poplar forest

Continued upward

Reach an altitude of more than 1000 meters

Into the mountain grasslands

The grass here is good

It’s the main pasture

Altitude continues to rise

Mountain coniferous forests gradually occupy the surface

Unlike in eastern China, where a hundred flowers bloom

The forests of tianshan are almost made up of the same kind of trees

Snow ridge spruce

Snow ridge spruce tall and straight

Like a sword to the sky

From tianshan south to hami

It stretches over 1,800 kilometers from east to west

Form a vast green sea

Occasionally the grasslands get the better of us

Interlaced with forests

Become “speckled forest”

The tall, deep snow ridge spruce forest may be too solemn

Nature also arranged more colors for tianshan

In the wet and temperate valley of ili

Wild apples, apricots and walnuts blossom

Like the clouds

The elevation rises to 2,000 to 3,000 meters

They entered the subalpine, alpine meadow area

The flowers and plants here complement each other

Constitute the most beautiful grassland in tianshan

Among them, karakan grassland

The slope curves are the most gentle

Like a beauty’s back

From the alpine grasslands continue upward

Vegetation thinning

Only a small amount of alpine vegetation remains

And years of snow

The legendary tianshan snow lotus

And here it blooms

Desert, grassland, forest, meadow

Colorful vegetation

In the vertical direction in turn spread

Tianshan gives a variety of colors

 

A large number of animals

They thrive here

The famous bayanbrook wetlands

More than 7,000 wild swans were gathered

It is the largest swan reserve in the country

Snow leopard, lynx, red fox, alpine snow chicken and so on

Can find a place here

Life comes and goes in the corridor of tianshan mountain

And some of the best performances come from humans

A corridor of civilization is about to be born

 

04

Civilization corridor

For eons

Human beings spread their territory north and south of tianshan mountain

Three avenues communicate things

Several paths connect north and south

Form a huge complex channel system

 

Western han dynasty

For the United States, and other countries

Against the huns

Emperor wu of the han dynasty sent zhang qian on two missions to the western regions

First through is the tianshan south road

It was also part of the silk road

Tianshan south road goes west

It adjoins the two deserts of kumtag and taklamakan

Wind and sand filled the sky along the way, water scarcity

To avoid the desert

The ancients opened up the great sea lanes

It connects yumen pass and turpan basin

Princesses of the east once married wusun along this road

Dayan’s steeds also reached chang ‘an via this road

In addition

There are also tianshan north road and tianshan middle road

Travel along grasslands or rivers

During the tang dynasty

It was once the main road connecting the western regions

Li bai, a poet, also wrote poems

(from li bai of tang dynasty, “the first of the six songs stuffed with music”)

“May Day mountain snow, no flowers only cold”

In fact

Long before the birth of the silk road

This area is already used by nomads

And Mongolia, central Asia and grassland road access

Over the long years

East and west meet and merge here

now

Only unremarkable mounds and statues

Talking about their civilization

Three main roads open the western territories

It also opened up the communication between the east and the west

The two ends of the continent are thus joined together

Chinese silk was sent to the Mediterranean

Western sesame, pepper, etc

It is continuously introduced into China

As trade between east and west flourished

Culture and religion from the western regions

It was also introduced into China by these roads

Among them

Qiuci founded his country with Buddhism

It was the center of gravity of the eastward spread of Buddhism

Cave paintings and statues from India

It is carried forward here

Today it’s near the site

There are still more than 500 thousand Buddha caves

Accounted for more than 80% of xinjiang

 

Outside the kizil thousand Buddha caves

A statue of kumarashe, who came here to practice

Still standing

The culture of the buddhist grottoes spread eastward with the eminent monks of the western regions

Widely distributed in the north and south of tianshan mountain

Then from dunhuang mogao grottoes

To maiji mountain, yungang, longmen grottoes

A long religious corridor gradually formed

The eastern monks followed suit

Faxian in the eastern jin dynasty and xuanzang in the tang dynasty

Through the tianshan corridor to India

Buddhist ideas from India

It even shaped the entire civilization of east Asia

By the Ming and qing dynasties

Islam is once again along the same corridor

It was introduced into China from west to east

Unique islamic architecture

The footprints in its path

Horse sports cars

Song ci-poetry deriving

Scrolls QingDeng

Everything in the western regions had fascinated the ancients

Still has endless charm today

Except as a way for things to communicate

Tianshan is also the dividing line between the two civilizations

North piedmont and mountain basin

There are large areas of grassland

Raised nomads on horseback

The southern foot is mostly desert

In a dotted oasis

There were many small city-states that lived off farming

Nomads and farmers

Struggle and merge on both sides of tianshan mountain

Thus, there are several ancient north-south roads through the tianshan mountains

Near mount bogda

The old road traversed the mountains

The xiongnu king in the north of the mountain, the han forces in the south of the mountain

There was a long stand-off

How many bloody battles have taken place on the ancient road

In addition

Also has the white water stream, the black bone and so on north and south ancient road

Today they are mostly unmarked

Tianshan, the western section of the mountains towering

Plus a lot of glaciers, snow

Make the road through here treacherous

The most dangerous of these is the shatt trail

All the way through the foot of the towering snow peak

It is adjacent to the wusun ancient road

It winds its way through the snow of the mountains

Tianshan corridor was born in the struggle

And perish in the struggle

When the manchu empire established xinjiang province

The war between nations was finally settled

But the outside world has changed

With the rise of western empires

The age of maritime trade has come

The silk road gradually declined

Tianshan corridor also lost its meaning of existence

Only the fort towers along the way

Witness or luxuriant flowers, or gold and iron horse of the past

05

The road leads to tianshan mountain

However,

Tianshan is not forgotten by history

After a hundred years of silence

Since the middle of the 20th century

Increasingly advanced modes of transportation

The tianshan corridor is being reconstructed

Ten years from 1952 to 1962

The lanzhou-xinjiang railway has been completed

It has become an east-west artery of the new China

The lanzhou-xinjiang high-speed railway opened on the line in 2014

Is a new era of speed witness

Southern xinjiang railway connecting turpan and korla

Become the important trunk line of communication between east and west of tianshan mountain

The past is the south tianshan road

The railway is fast and convenient

Roads also run in all directions

From Shanghai to yili national highway 312

Is the earliest modern tianshan highway

The first road reaches yili through hami and urumqi

It’s like a modern version of north tianshan dao

National highway 314 wuka highway

Is along the tianshan south road

Through mountains and deserts

 

National highway 218 starts from yining

Across the mountain basin

Through the tianshan road

In the last ten years, 1974-1983

From dushanzi in the north to kuqa in the south

The army’s road-building troops cut through the mountains

The construction of a very difficult road

More than half the length of the highway

All are mountains above 2000 meters

With the construction of “One Belt And One Road”

Tianshan corridor serves as an important node along the way

Will be in this new era

Shine again

Technology, wealth, civilization

Will communicate here again

In the future

The road still goes out of tianshan mountain

 

The main references in this paper are: hu ruji’s natural geography of China’s tianshan mountains, mansur shabti’s xinjiang geography, huang jianhua’s silk road civilization in the western regions, huang xiufang’s silk road, liu yanqun’s xinjiang traffic, etc